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Brachycephaly, also known as flat-head syndrome, is a type of cephalic disorder. This occurs when the coronal suture fuses prematurely, causing a shortened front-to-back diameter of the skull. The coronal suture is the fibrous joint that unites the frontal bone with the two parietal bones of the skull. The parietal bones form the top and sides of the skull. This feature can be seen in Down Syndrome.

The incidence of brachycephaly has increased dramatically since the advent of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome recommendations for parents to keep their babies on their backs. Many pediatricians remain unaware of the issue and possible treatments.

Treatments range from a simple repositioning of babies below the age of 5 months or more involved treatment with a helmet for children under the age of 18 months.
Brachycephaly also describes a developmentally normal type of skull with a low cephalic index, such as in snub-nosed breeds of dog.

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