*A Haglund deformity, or pump bump, is caused by chronic inflammation of the adventitious superficial pretendinous Achilles bursa that separates the Achilles tendon from the overlying skin.
*According to Jones, this bursa is present in about 50% of patients. This pretendinous bursitis usually is caused by chronic irritation from a shoe heel counter, and modification of shoe wear usually relieves symptoms. This deformity usually occurs in young women in their 20s or 30s. Surgery is infrequently required.
*The following technique is recommended if conservative measures fail :
1. Place the patient prone. After administration of general or local anesthesia, make a longitudinal lateral incision 1 cm lateral to the Achilles tendon, extending distally from 3 to 4 cm proximal to the superior tuberosity of the calcaneus to 2 to 3 cm distal to the superior tuberosity of the calcaneus.
2. Plantar flex the ankle joint and by sharp and blunt dissection, identify the Achilles tendon.
3. Place a right-angle retractor between the Achilles tendon and posterior and superior borders of the calcaneal tuberosity. With the foot plantar flexed, this usually affords enough exposure to remove the superior border of the calcaneal tuberosity without raising any of the Achilles tendon off the calcaneus. However, the Achilles tendon has such an extensive insertion into the posterior and plantar aspect of the calcaneal tuberosity that raising a 1- to 2-cm-long portion of the tendon may be necessary to resect the bone adequately.
4. Remove the superior aspect of the tuberosity with a microsagittal saw or an osteotome. Placement of several drill holes along the proposed osteotomy site makes this resection easier.
5. If an area of ossification remains, split the Achilles tendon in a coronal plane distally with the anterior third or half to free up enough to excise the calcified tendon.
6. Lavage the wound and close in layers.
7. Apply a well-padded, short leg, non–weight bearing cast with the ankle in approximately 20 degrees of plantar flexion.
*The cast and sutures are removed at 3 weeks. The sutures may be removed earlier if indicated, but the non–weight bearing cast remains on for 3 weeks. Then a removable weight bearing cast boot is applied, and active plantar flexion and dorsiflexion exercises are begun. It is important in the preoperative counseling to explain to a young woman with a pump bump that it might be 3 to 6 months before she can wear a stylish shoe and that there is no guarantee that she will ever be able to do so comfortably.